All Is Full of Love: Photography and Gender











Gender is a social construct. It is a word that describes the “role” one plays socially. Gender is not simply “male” and “female”, but additionally all the spaces and ambiguities between these two “normative” social constructs.

Gender is fluid.

Gender Studies

First Wave Feminism : approx. 1790 (the French Revolution, the publication of Wolstencraft’s The Vindication of the Rights of Women) – 1960s (the point when gender began to be studied academically)

First Wave Feminism was concerned with:

1. The vote for women

2. Access to professions for women

3. Women’s right to own property

‘O Artist! Sculptor! Poet! go thy way
With far more trembling care than others may! Thou art anointed to as high a place,
Wilt thou but know it, as a man may grace. Great is the lot assigned thee, great the task
As even the most heroic soul dare ask:
Great be thy heart to meet it; it demands
A watchful spirit and untiring hands.
Not thine alone the burden and the care,–
Not thine alone the duty and the prayer,–
All earth prays with thee that thy hands be pure, Thy work untainted and its teaching sure.’

– Bessie Rayner Parkes, The World of Art, 1855

Second Wave Feminism: 1960s – 1990s

Second Wave Feminism was concerned with:

1. Liberation from the oppressiveness of patriarchy
2. Rights for women in family and home life as well as in the public sphere
3. The female body as a site for struggle.

“One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman.” – Simone de Beauvoir

Gender is constructed…

Third Wave Feminism: (1990s – present)

Third Wave Feminism is concerned with:

1. That Second Wave Feminism was too white and middle class
2. Popular culture and fashion is a site of activism and can be embraced
3. Feminism needs to be more global and incorporate the views of men (that men and heterosexuality aren’t always a subject of criticism)
4. A woman can be “feminine” and still be a feminist (Courtney Love)


Gender can change, there is no definition for it.

Gender studies:

  • Social positioning
  • sociology ignored gender
  • gender blind sociology
  • roles
  • inequality was not an issue in the 1960’s
  • before sociology, women were seen badly.

The world of art – Bessie Rayner Parkes

Third wave feminism –

  1. second wave was too white and middle class
  2. popular culture and fashion is a site of activism and can be embraced
  3. feminism needs to be global
  4. a woman can be feminism and still be a feminist

It is hard to define what a woman is


  • debate
  • equality is not a straight forward aim
  • difficult to be a feminist and capitalist at the same time.

Queer Theory: 

  • grew in its theoretical interest
  • used more homophobic
  • queer is seen as an insult
  • they used it in a different meaning – a new meaning.
  • Used this word to reclaim to make it seem better.
  • Queer – celebration of the transgender

Race/ethnicity :

50 key concepts in gender studies – Jane Filcher

Imeida Wheleh

societies act in this global difference

Categorising people in groups by their appearance


Kate Moss as a cyborg – Simon Crundwell

-Hypred creatures

-past second world war